A novel bio superplasticizer with corn polyols residue(CPR) was proposed and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR). Combined with X ray diffraction intensity(XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope(SEM), the effects of bio superplasticizer on development and morphology of cement hydration products were investigated, and further the hydration process and regulation mechanism were analyzed. Moreover, function mechanism of bio superplasticizer was discussed. The result indicates that the early hydration of cement is retarded by bio superplasticizer where ether bond and sulfonic acid groups are introduced, however,the late cement hydration can be promoted, and the dispersion ability of corn polyols residue based plasticizer(CPRP) in cement paste is better. In addition, the initial setting and final set time of cement paste admixed with bio superplasticizer extends for 92 and 110 min, respectively as compared to the control; the water reducing ratio of cement attained to 24.3%(by mass), but it does not affect the development of compressive strength of the hardened cement paste, compressive strength of 28d is 42.7 MPa. Bio superplasticizer improves the mechanical properties and durability of hardening cement paste.